The American Society of Criminology is an international organization whose members pursue scholarly, scientific, and professional knowledge concerning the measurement, etiology, consequences, prevention, control, and treatment of crime and delinquency.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics the 2017 median wage for probation officers was $51,410 per year, with 6% job growth expected through 2026. Probation officers monitor parolees released from the corrections system to ensure that they abide by the terms of their probation while assisting parolees with adjusting to life after release using specialized treatment techniques. A probation officer is typically assigned a caseload of parolees, with whom they interact at the parolees' homes and places of work as well as at the office. This gives probation officers the opportunity to make a positive difference in the lives of others. Those interested in the criminal justice system or social work may find a career as a probation officer to be very rewarding.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates the annual salary of forensic science technicians at $61,220, though the average salary is higher in states with high demand for these specialists like California, Nevada, and Illinois, where the average is between $76,160 and $82,650. Aspiring forensic science technicians can get a head start on the training required for this career as early as high school with a focus on science and math curriculums, but by obtaining a forensic science degree, individuals can enter this exciting field at any age. Forensic science technicians work in labs, government agencies, hospitals, courtrooms, and other places where the ability to reconstruct events based on clues such as hair samples, broken material, and fingerprints is needed. This is an exciting career for analytical minds with an interest in science.
Demand for police officers is expected to grow by 7% through 2026, with an average annual salary of $62,960 reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Police officers are on the front line of the US criminal justice system, working not just to apprehend criminals but to prevent crime through community outreach and visible presence efforts. Every city and municipality from rural communities to metropolises like New York needs a police force, which offers job security for those accepting a position as a police officer. Successful police forces invest in a great deal of training for their officers beyond the initial degree and certification; such training includes cultural diversity awareness, legal ethics, and law enforcement technologies. This is a demanding and fast paced career with personal and professional growth opportunities.
Correctional officers, who work primarily within jails and prisons to supervise and assist those convicted of crimes, average a salary of $43,510 per year according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Correctional officers are needed at the local, state, and federal levels as each judicial body maintains separate incarceration systems. Less pre-career training is needed for correctional officers than for other careers within the justice system because correctional officers receive qualification and on-the-job training on a regular basis to ensure their safety and that of a prison population. The focus for correctional officers in recent years has shifted from one of “guarding” prisoners to one of rehabilitating prisoners by enhancing their treatment programs while incarcerated. Degrees, certifications, and/or past experience in social work or criminal justice will help those interested in starting a career as a correctional officer
While they may assist public detectives and local police forces, private detectives and investigators also take on cases in the private realm that do not involve a criminal aspect, adding variety to daily work while earning an average salary of $55,080 according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Private detectives are often hired to do background checks and uncover information related to divorce cases, worker's compensation claims, and other work similar to that of a public detective. Knowledge of forensics and the law as it applies to collecting evidence and surveillance is a must in this field, which is why most private detectives have a degree in criminal justice as well as some experience working as a detective or officer in the public sector.
For those who enjoy the outdoors and an active lifestyle, the average annual salary of a fish and game warden, estimated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics at $58,570, is a generous reward for enjoying what comes naturally. Fish and game wardens work in forest preserves, public waterways, national parks, and other protected recreational and conservational areas to ensure that the wildlife and habitat are protected and visitors are kept safe. Demand is highest for fish and game wardens in states with many busy parks and natural areas, such as Texas and California. This position uniquely combines the knowledge areas of biology and law enforcement in a challenging career, where certifications in criminal justice with classes in forensics or biology will be helpful.
Security guards are in demand wherever there are people or property to protect, which is why the Bureau of Labor Statistics is projecting 6% job growth in this industry over the next eight years. Private security guards patrol the areas where they are assigned for unusual or suspicious activity and make sure that all safety guidelines enacted by their employers are enforced. Security guards work in concert with law enforcement and the armed forces to deter crime and ensure the safety of the communities in which they work. Many private employers in need of security guards offer training and flexible scheduling as part of this rewarding career.
State troopers work on state highways, ensuring that all state and federal vehicle laws are met. This includes well-known laws such as speeding and seatbelt use, but state troopers are also responsible for enforcing lesser known laws, such as those regulating the use, size, and equipment of commercial vehicles such as semi-trucks. State troopers also assist local and federal law enforcement in searching for and apprehending wanted criminals, detecting signs of illegal activity, and preventing terrorism. These professionals earn roughly the same salary as other police officers, with a median wage of $62,960 reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. However, highly trained or experienced state troopers may command a higher salary, especially in higher-risk metropolitan area.
The field of forensic science is growing as technology and new techniques put forensic science within the reach of more police departments than ever before. The demand for professionals in this field is expected to grow by 17% through 2026 according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, making this a great field in which to pursue a degree. Crime scene investigators work on the field collecting evidence and in the lab analyzing that evidence to reconstruct past events, work that can support or contradict eyewitnesses – or even fill in when no eyewitnesses are available. This can identify suspects as well as prove the innocence of people wrongly accused of a crime, making the work of crime scene investigators indispensable to the due process of law.
Computer forensics investigators or specialists combine the specialties of forensic science, computer science, and criminal investigation. Computer forensics investigators reconstruct data and activities on electronic media rather than on crime scenes, because as technology moves forward crime is being committed more frequently with computers and electronic devices. Criminals may try to destroy electronic evidence by deleting it, hiding it, or even physically destroying it, which is where computer forensics investigators come in. These highly trained individuals use advanced data extraction techniques to piece together information that criminals hoped was lost, and may be called on in court to present their findings.
Fraud investigators earn an average salary of $64,690 a year according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, thanks to their in-demand specialized skills and experience. Fraud investigators are often needed to determine whether or not a claim is true, usually after an insurance company or other party has paid for a claim. This could involve claims of property damage, personal injury, or other types of fraud such as corporate financial crimes. Fraud investigators gather evidence, interview the parties involved, and present their findings to the client that hired them. The Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasts that health insurance fraud investigators will be in particularly high demand in coming years due to the recent federal health care legislation, making fraud investigation a strong career choice for future growth.
FBI agents have a multitude of responsibilities, as their primary task is to enforce federal law as agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. For this reason, many FBI agents specialize in one area of law enforcement after graduating from new agent training. The new agent training is extremely rigorous, including nearly 1,000 hours of training in academics, case exercises, firearms training, and operations. After training, FBI agents may work against terrorism, cybercrime, civil rights violations, public corruption, organized crime, violent crime, or major thefts, following each step of an investigation through to the sentencing of a criminal. In order to become an FBI agent, applicants must have a four-year degree by an accredited institution. There are many career paths that special agents can enter to start their career, including Finance and Accounting, Information Technology, Language, Intelligence Analysis, and Applied Science, Engineering and Technology.
Special agents for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) help the federal government investigate violations of the law all over the world. Like domestic agents and police officers, CIA agents put their lives at risk in service to their department and community, but are more often called upon to do so covertly. This element of risk contributes to the high salary of CIA special agents, between $74,872 and $136,771 for agents based in Washington, DC, where CIA headquarters are located. However, CIA agents may be based in satellite offices in the US or abroad, as a CIA agent can be called upon for foreign travel. CIA agents collaborate with other law enforcement agencies on a regular basis by bringing a special mix of skills acquired in CIA training to the table. Those interested in becoming a CIA agent are encouraged to obtain a bachelor's degree in a field related to law, forensics, language, or criminal justice, and acquire at least five years of experience in investigation.
As members of the United States Postal Inspection Service, postal inspectors investigate and solve crimes related to the US mail. Such crimes include theft, vandalism, fraud, and even identity theft. Any time a crime is committed that involves the postal service, postal inspectors are likely to be involved. Postal inspectors use forensic techniques, question witnesses, and research leads in order to solve these crimes. In order to become a postal inspector, applicants must have a four-year degree from an accredited college or university and a clean criminal record. Applicants who are selected receive 12 weeks of intense training at the US Postal Inspection Service Strategic Learning Services facility in Maryland.
Immigration and customs enforcements agents are responsible for investigating, arresting, and deporting individuals who do not have permission to be in the US. To do this they must keep abreast of current policies and regulations, make recommendations or presentations to courts hearing immigration cases, and participate in special assignments, which may be covert.12 The US Immigration and Customs Enforcement division is a component of the Department of Homeland Security, which entitles enforcement agents to a range of competitive benefits including life and long term care insurance, generous vacation time, flexible work schedules, and tuition reimbursement, just to name a few. Salary is based in part on experience, but applicants with a degree in criminal justice have an advantage in entering this exciting career.
As forensic scientists, blood spatter analysts have a highly specific education in the physics, biology, and chemistry of spilled blood. This education is the basis for a median salary of $57,850 according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Blood can be the most critical clue in a crime scene, but understanding how it arrived and who it belongs to can be an intense process. Blood spatter analysts visit the scene of a crime, help locate and preserve blood samples, and do in-depth analysis at the lab. This analysis may include experiments to try to replicate an intriguing blood spatter pattern. Even small volumes of blood require an educated blood spatter analyst's investigation since blood patterns can vary according to motion, gravity, air pressure, volume, the surface it lands on, and many other variables. This career is not for the faint of heart but is a rewarding way to support the criminal justice system.
Homicide detectives support police officers and other investigative detectives with solving murders and apprehending suspects. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports the average salary of all detectives at $62,960 per year, but because the work of a homicide detective is specialized the salary for this work is often higher. Homicide detectives must work to establish how and when a murder was committed, what the motive was, and who committed the crime. They will gather evidence, oversee the work of crime scene technicians, and identify and interview witnesses, sometimes years after an unsolved crime is committed; these investigations are sometimes called cold cases. The nature of this work makes the career of a homicide detective a stressful one, but through their work homicide detectives are able to make a real difference in the communities in which they live
Drug Enforcement Administration agents, known as DEA agents for short, work for the US Justice Department to enforce the drug laws of the United States. Salaries for DEA agents depend on education and experience, but a starting salary of $49,746 is common, which can increase to $92,592 or more after four years of working in the field. DEA agents investigate, track, arrest, and dismantle drug traffickers and their organizations through overt and covert operations. To excel in the competitive application process, the DEA recommends that applicants have a bachelor's degree with a focus in criminal justice, police science, or foreign languages, although other bachelor's degrees can also help applicants succeed. Successful applicants receive 18 weeks of Basic Agent Training at the DEA Training Academy and may receive other ongoing training opportunities. DEA agents must also be in excellent physical condition.
Although the US Secret Service is typically thought of as the service that protects the President and other high-level officials, Secret Service agents actually do much more. The Secret Service is tasked with protecting the integrity of the United States' financial systems by thwarting cyber-attacks on banking systems, identifying and removing counterfeit currency from circulation, and investigating, arresting, and prosecuting criminals who break the laws intended to protect our nation's financial security. The Secret Service is also involved with crimes such as computer and telecommunications fraud and document forgery. Due to the nature of the work, the Secret Service expects agents to be willing to travel frequently, have a bachelor's degree preferably with a focus related to the work of the Secret Service, and be in excellent physical condition. In return, agents receive comprehensive government benefits with a starting salary of around $49,746 (GL-7), though this may be higher depending on an individual's qualifications.
US Marshals transport, manage, and protect prisoners and federal witnesses; arrest wanted criminals; and administer the Department of Justice Asset Forfeiture Program, which seizes and sells assets purchased with illegally obtained money to compensate victims and fund law enforcement programs. As members of the nation's oldest law enforcement agency, US Marshals also provide protection to judges, attorneys, and jurors in high profile or potentially dangerous court cases. What they are best known for, however, is apprehending fugitives from the law; in 2014, the US Marshals arrested over 33,700 fugitive felons – that's almost 100 a day. To become a part of this fast-paced career, individuals should have a bachelor's degree or a combination of education and experience to meet the government's GL-07 level classification. Education in police work, criminal justice, foreign languages, or law will help applicants gain an edge.
Welcome to The Indigo Book—a free, Creative Commons-dedicated implementation of The Bluebook’s Uniform System of Citation. The Indigo Book was compiled by a team of students at the New York University School of Law, working under the direction of Professor Christopher Jon Sprigman.
The Indigo Book isn’t the same as The Bluebook, but it does implement the same Uniform System of Citation that The Bluebook does. The scope of The Indigo Book’s coverage is roughly equivalent to The Bluebook’s “Bluepages”—that is, The Indigo Book covers legal citation for U.S. legal materials, as well as books, periodicals, and Internet and other electronic resources. In addition, The Indigo Book offers citation guidance that is deeper than The Bluebook’s Bluepages—for example, The Indigo Book has citation guidance for bills, and for legislative history, that the Bluepages lack. For the materials that it covers, anyone using The Indigo Book will produce briefs, memoranda, law review articles, and other legal documents with citations that are compatible with the Uniform System of Citation.